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Fig 6 In terms of flow, an inlet, muffler and outlet that appears to the airflow to look like number 1 is what is needed. A real-world muffler (number 2) does not look like number 1, but number 4. This shows that the muffler, not the pipe, is the usual restriction. Some race mufflers actually have a core flow greater than the in/out pipe and look like number 5.